Ustadz, how the law to do shaum tasyu`a and Ashura?
Peace be upon you, and Allah’s mercy and blessings,
Fasting Ashura means the fasting sunnah on the 10th of Muharram month. This year Allah will fall on Thursday 9th February 2006.
The law of origin is mandatory, but then its obligations are nullified (canceled) with the obligation of shaum Ramadan, then the shaum changes its law into sunnah.
Rasulullah SAW advised the Muslims to perform the shaum ‘Assyuraa (shaum of the tenth day) of the month of Muharram plus the shaum of the day before or after. The fast the day before was called Tasu’a, derived from the word tis’ah which means nine. Because fasting was done on the 9th of Muharram month.
This is based on the hadiths narrated by the Companions. Among others:
From Humaid bin Abdir Rahman, he heard Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan RA said: O people of Medina, where are your scholars? I heard the Prophet SAW said, “This is Assyura day, and Allah SWT does not require shaum to you in that day, while I shaum, then who should shaum and who is willing to break the fast should break fast.” (HR Bukhari 2003)
Another Hadith is the following hadith:
From Ibn Abbas RA, he said: when the Messenger of Allah (SAW) arrived in the city of Medina and saw the Jews performing the shaum assyuraa, he asked? They replied, “This is a good day, the day that God saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and then Musa shaum on that day.” So the Prophet SAW replied, “I have more right to Moses than you”, then he shaum on that day and ordered to carry out the shaum. (HR Bukhari 2004)
There are also other hadiths related to what you are asking:
From Ibn’Abbas RA, he said: At the time of the Prophet (s) he exercised the Assyura shaum and commanded the Companions to execute it, they said, “Messenger of Allah, that day (assyura) is a day which is glorified by Jews and Christians.” So Rasulullah SAW said, “Insha Allah if until the coming year I will shaum on the ninth day”. Ibn Abbas said, “Rasulullah SAW died before the next year” (Muslim HR 1134)
Rasulullah SAW said, “Shaabah you on the day of assyura and different with the Jews. Shaabah you the day before or the day after. “(HR Ath-Thahawy and Baihaqy and Ibn Huzaimah 2095)
As for the virtue of such shaum as narrated in the hadith from Abu Qatadah, that it can wipe out our sins for the past year (Muslim HR 2/819)
Imam Nawawy when explaining the above hadith said: “The meaning of kaffarat (redeemer) sin is small sins, but if the person does not have small sins is expected with the shaum the big sins are lightened, and if he too do not have great sins, God will raise the degree of the person by His side.
Wallahu a’lam bishshowab. Wassalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
Ahmad Sarwat, Lc.